Project Description

Understanding the local terrain features is crucial when it comes to interpretation of weather observations (e. g. comparison of wind speeds during a storm event or validation of temperature extrema). The landform classification algorithm described above is applied to the set of automated weather stations run owned by MeteoSwiss. A simple classification by altitude and local landform (figure 1) provides a good overview of station characteristics. Detailed maps allow for a better understanding of local weather/climate processes. The weather station of Buffalora (Grisons, Switzerland) at an altitude of 1970 m AMSL frequently reports the lowest daily minimum temperatures in the whole observation network. Figure 2 exhibits the terrain pattern in this Alpine high-valley. There is a distinct ground depression near the station which permits the formation of nocturnal cold air pool.

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The cars data.

Figure 1: The cars data.

Figure 1: Classification of weather station in Switzerland by altitude (colour scheme) and landform (symbols) Figure 1: Classification of weather station in Switzerland by altitude (colour scheme) and landform (symbols)
Figure 2: Topography and hill shade in a perimeter of 10 x 10 km centred at the weather station of Buffalora (Grisons, Switzerland). See http://myweather.ch/smn/station/BUF.html for more details. Figure 2: Topography and hill shade in a perimeter of 10 x 10 km centred at the weather station of Buffalora (Grisons, Switzerland). See http://myweather.ch/smn/station/BUF.html for more details.
Figure 3: Landform classes for the same region as in previous figure Figure 3: Landform classes for the same region as in previous figure

Literature

Jasiewicz, Jarosław & F Stepinski, Tomasz. (2012). Geomorphons - a pattern recognition approach to classification and mapping of landforms. Geomorphology. 182. 10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.11.005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.11.005

Technology

  • R packages: data.table, sf, sp, ggplot2, leaflet, rmarkdown
  • Data: NASA STRM Elevation Model